# Probabilities in the Galaxy

## A Distribution Model for habitable Planets

 German Version

## 4 - Animated Planets in our Galaxy

### 4.1 - Planetary Assumptions for Life

In the previous chapter it could be clarified, how many earth-like planets exist, which could offer a basis for life. The prerequisite for life is the presence of basic building materials such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur, phosphates and trace elements. And water, of course.

 4.1.1 Axiom If the basic building materials and suitable reaction environments are present in the universe, then the basic building blocks of life, such as amino acids, also arise there.
 4.1.2 Axiom The basic building blocks of life are created, under appropriate conditions, throughout the universe.

Planetary Assumptions for Life are:

#### 1) Stable orbit in habitable zone

 An orbit in the habitable zone is necessary to obtain temperature conditions suitable for life. Furthermore, the orbit must have a certain time stability, otherwise the climate and weather conditions would change too drastically. Even small changes in the orbit cause long-period climatic changes, which can result in recurrent ice ages.

The distance of the planet must be regulated in such a way that gravity and size of the planet are dimensioned in such a way that firstly a stable atmosphere can develop and secondly that the triple point of the water is stable. This is a fixed area between solid, liquid or gaseous, which results from distance, gravity (mass of the planets to each other), as well as centrifugal and centripetal forces.

#### 2) Stable axis of rotation

 A stable rotation axis is necessary to maintain regulated and stable seasons. The inclination of this axis determines the seasons. [2] The inclination of the axle should not be too large and the precession should not be too large to avoid greater climate and weather changes. The duration of the precession should also not be too short. The inclination of the earth's axis is 23.44° from Earth's orbit and the precession is 25,800 years.
 Apart from stabilizing the axis of rotation, the moon also has an influence on the earth and thus on climate and weather via the tides of the oceans. The moon has a diameter of 3,476 km and is 384,400 km away from the earth. After a sidereal month (27.32 days) the moon takes the same position to the fixed stars again. Since he also turns around himself once, he always turns the same side to the earth.

The following options are available for a stable axis of rotation:

a) one or more moons are present
b) a two-planetary system
c) as the moon of a much larger planet

#### 3) Stable magnetic field, electric field (trigger signals, volcanism)

 An (electro)magnetic field that has a certain temporal stability to a planet [3] is imperative to selectively protect against cosmic radiation and/or solar wind. Only defined parts of the particle flow of charged particles of solar origin (as well as parts of the light from IR, via visible to UV) are passed through. These are the "solar frequencies". Defined atmosphere windows exist for these specific frequencies. [4] The Earth's magnetic field is generated by rotating magma masses inside the planet. This is one of the reasons why volcanism and plate tectonics occur simultaneously, which play an important role in shaping life. This magnetic field contains the "geomagnetic frequencies". Another essential trigger signal is the "Schumann frequency" (7.83 Hz). The Schumann frequency is created by the formation of a standing wave with a cavity resonator frequency between the ionosphere and the earth's surface. [5] The frequency is a consequence of the distance ionosphere-earth surface and circumference. In this respect, a stable ionosphere is even a prerequisite and the Schumann frequency is a consequence. These "geomagnetic frequencies" are essential signals in conjunction with the "Schumann" and "solar frequencies", so that a highly complex structure such as that of the hereditary substance as a "blueprint" and the structure of highly specific organs, enzymes, proteins and above all nerves can be clearly and perfectly performed and the function of all parts and elements can function together perfectly. [6]

These signals are necessary for the development of living beings to synchronize all structural, organic, nervous and mental processes. Overall, therefore, an electromagnetic field is required which has a certain temporal stability. As a result, the Geodynamo must remain active for billions of years. An example, if the Geodynamo comes to an early standstill, is Mars. Once like earth with continents, oceans and atmosphere, it became a dried out planet due to the failure of the geodynamos and thus the magnetic field.

#### 4) Stable atmosphere (light, shielding UV radiation, climate, weather)

 A stable atmosphere is necessary to protect against UV radiation and smaller asteroids or comets. In addition, a better light distribution is achieved through the atmosphere. In addition, the atmosphere at night also determines climate and weather. [7] [8] A long-term stable atmosphere, with the associated climate systems, prevents an irreversible greenhouse effect, [9] as it has occurred on Venus. An atmosphere is also needed so that plants and living beings can develop.

#### 5) Water (oceans, weather, climate)

 Water is needed to create life and living beings need water to live. [10] The presence of water requires oceans and these in turn influence the weather and climate of the planet. In total, 71% of the earth's surface is covered by seas, i.e. the oceans and their secondary seas. About 3% of the water on earth is fresh water. Most of it exists as frozen ice at the poles. Only about 0.03% of the world's water resources can be used as drinking water.

#### 6) Continents (plants, climate, weather)

 Volcanism and thus plate tectonics are generated by rotating magma masses inside the planet. This creates continents. [11] Continents are needed for plants and organisms to develop. The migration of continents changes fauna and flora. Especially at the edges of the plates volcanic activities can occur. Continents also have an impact on climate and weather.

#### 7) Basic building materials (chemical elements)

 There are a number of chemical elements and their compounds, such as salts and minerals required to bring about life. [12] There are 4,603 minerals on Earth.

#### 8) Basic building blocks of life (amino acids)

 The building blocks of life are amino acids. These must be present for life to develop. [13] There are 21 amino acids. Four of them are used in DNA, namely adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine.

### 4.1.1 - The life factor

 The prerequisites for life described so far are absolutely necessary. If a component is missing, life is not possible. These factors represent the hardware on which life is based.
 DNA The building blocks of life, i.e. the amino acids, do not form DNA on their own. There must therefore have been a factor or a process or an event that produced the ordered and replicable DNA strand from the individual, randomly distributed amino acids. These can be external influences such as specific environmental conditions or an introduction from outside (panspermia). The factor that created DNA can be called the "structural factor" fS. Cells Then another factor or process or event is required that creates a complete cell from the DNA. A cell also includes the shell and other structures such as chromosomes, RNA and additional amino acids and enzymes. Here, too, there can be external influences such as specific environmental conditions, as well as mutation and symbiosis or an introduction from outside (panspermia). The factor that produces living cells is therefore called "cell factor" fZ.
 Where life arises, evolution occurs. According to the convergence theory, the development of complexity is a part of evolution. (see chapter 13.2) Larger and more complex life forms are a prerequisite for the development of intelligence and consciousness. Since life forms are subject to evolution and its laws, their development is determined by a variety of influences. External influences are changes in environmental conditions. External influences can lead to changes in species directly or via epigenetics. Mutations represent another influencing factor. Since evolution is based on a certain randomness, the "evolution factor" fE can be introduced here, which stands for the probability of a constant and more complex evolution. All three factors together result in the "life factor" fL which causes all components to form a living cell with all its processes and complex life to develop from it. The life factor is then the software that is needed to get life going and keep it going. 4.1.1.1 Definition fL = fS · fZ · fE fL = life factor fS = structure factor fZ = cell factor fE = evolution factor By introducing the life factor, it can be taken into account that in addition to the emergence of life on Earth, the introduction from extraterrestrial sources, i.e. panspermia, is also possible. By introducing the life factor, it becomes irrelevant whether ife originated on Earth itself or was brought here through external influences. Overall, it follows that the hardware and software of life are necessary to enable life and its evolution on a planet. Therefore, the following axiom can now be stated:
 4.1.1.2 AxiomIf the planetary assumptions for life are given on a planet, then life also develops there.

 There are 8 hardware requirements and 3 software components necessary for life. If all factors are independent so 11 components work. This results in FL = 1:12. This value is used as a basis in the following minimal considerations.

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 176 sides, of them 64 in Color 76 pictures 11 tables Production and publishing: Books on Demand GmbH, Norderstedt ISBN 9-783-7528-5524-1 Price: 22 Euro