N_{X}
therefore represents the number of civilizations
related to a particular type of sun. In order to
determine the number of all civilizations in the galaxy,
the sum of all partial results, i.e. across all spectral
classes, must then be formed:
Equation 12.2.2 is therefore referred to as the " General Approach". Equation 12.2.2 can be used to
estimate the number of civilizations in the galaxy.According to previous observations, the frequency for G stars, i.e. sun-like stars, is about 28%
of the total stars. The red dwarfs, i.e. the M stars, represent the major part, with about 70 % of the total
stars, of which only 80 % are
observable. Therefore:: N* = A · F_{RZ}
· f_{Q}.
The remaining 2 % of the total stars
belong to the remaining 11 spectral
classes and are not taken into account in this estimation
without impairing the observation.The probabilities for sun-like stars are known according to chapters 1 to 7. The data for the red dwarfs are only partly taken from the data of Sara Seager, because some of her assumptions (life and biosphere) are too optimistic. Then the following values are used for equation 12.2.2: N _{ziv}
= A·F_{s}·F_{ph}·F_{k}·F_{Liz} + A·F _{RZ}·F_{Q}·F_{ph}·F_{O}·F_{Liz}N _{ziv} = (100-300)·10^{9} · 1:15,000
· 0.004,7 · 1:1001+ (100-300)·10 ^{9}
· 0.7 · 0.8 · 1:4200 · 0.001 · 1:1001N _{ziv} = 32 - 94+ 14 - 40 N = 46 – 134 technological civilizationsComparison General Basic ModelAccording to sentence 8.4.5 of the General Basic
Model, the number of star systems, with Earth-like
planets, in habitable zones that could support
civilizations is probably between 35 - maximum
1,034.The Drake-corrected General Basic Model 9.8.2 provides 22
- 199 "Earths 2" with technological
civilizations.The Seager-corrected General Basic Model 11.4.2 provides 35
- 334 "Earths 2" with technological
civilizations.The calculated window of the General Approach corresponds well with the window for the General Basic Model and thus results in a good match between the two approaches. This results in a good agreement between the general approach and the previous probability considerations from the corrected general basic model. This confirms that the General Approach
and the General Basic Model are two equivalent
approaches.Comparison Drake EquationThe Drake equation 9.1.2 provides 9 -
109 extraterrestrial technological civilizations
and is thus well within the range of the calculated
window of the General Approach.The corrected Drake equation 9.5.3 lets expect 11
- 146 extraterrestrial technological
civilizations and is thus well within the range of the
calculated window of the General Approach.This results in a good agreement of the general approach with the Drake equation. This confirms that the General Approach
and the Drake equation represent two equivalent
approaches. |

176 sides, of them 64 in Color76 pictures 11 tables Production and publishing: Books on Demand GmbH, Norderstedt ISBN 9-783-7528-5524-1 Price: 22 Euro |
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